This blog is for educators, academicians, students and those who are interasted to integrate technology in class room.

Archive for the ‘Open Textbook’ Category

Open Textbooks:Use-Reuse-Remix

Be part of a growing movement to change education!

Please consider assigning an Open Textbook for your fall semester classes. We’ll provide everything  you need with just one click.

An Open Textbook is licensed openly, so it’s free for you to use, re-use, modify, and adapt to fit your course requirements.

Open Textbooks are flexible for educators and free for students, offer interactive learning experiences, come with a community of your peers on the cutting edge of education innovation. They are an affordable, flexible alternative to traditionally-published textbooks.

The BCcampus Open Textbook Toolkit is your starting point on how to change education with just one textbook. It provides:

  • Links to all our high-quality, peer-reviewed textbooks ready to use right now,
  • Links to best practices in open learning and teaching, and how you can contribute,
  • Instructions and how-to videos,
  • Downloadable posters and brochures to help you spread the word about open educational resources,
  • A place for you to sign up to receive updates and tell us of your experiences using open textbooks,
  • A chance for you to receive a free gift when you assign your first open textbook.

When you assign an open textbook, you’re joining a world-wide movement to make education free, open and accessible to all. We’re looking forward to having you join us.


Open Textbooks Toolkit


The BCcampus Open Textbook Toolkit is your starting point on how to change education with just one textbook. It provides a list of our open textbooks, information and guidelines for adopting and assigning an open textbook.

About Open Textbooks in B.C.

In October 2012, the BC Ministry of Advanced Education announced its support for the creation of open textbooks for the 40 highest-enrolled first and second year subject areas in the province’s public post-secondary system. BCcampus is tasked with co-ordination of the project because of our 10-year experience funding open educational resources (OER) through the Online Program Development Fund.

The goal of the Open Textbook Project is to provide flexible and affordable access to higher education resources in B.C. by making open textbooks available for use by B.C. faculty, and digital versions of the texts are free of charge to faculty and students. Printed copies are also available on demand for a low cost.

High-quality, peer-reviewed textbooks ready to use now

The following textbooks have been rated 4 or higher (out of 5) by your peers in the British Columbia higher education system and are available for download now:


  1. Open Textbooks formats
  2. Guidelines on choosing and assigning an Open Textbook
  3. Adopting an Open Textbook video tutorial
  4. Why Open Textbooks? A video clip from BCcampus
  5. Print Support Materials (poster, brochure)
  6. Have you adopted an open textbook? Share your experience with us. We’ll send you a thank you gift.
  7. Open Textbook FAQ
  8. Sign up for updates if you have already adopted a textbook

1. Open textbook formats

The textbooks are available to read online, download epub and mobi formats or purchase a low cost print copy online.

2. Guidelines on choosing and assigning an open textbook

If you are an instructor looking for an open textbook to assign to your class here are some guidelines.

3. A short video tutorial on how to adopt an Open Textbook:

4. Why Open Textbooks? A video clip from BCcampus.

5. Print support materials. Help us spread the word!

Download and use now:

Download, use, re-use and remix:
The following are individual .zip files containing all files file necessary to edit and use, re-use or remix, with the exception of fonts. Requires Helvetica Neue font. Created in InDesign CS6 format.

6. Have you adopted an Open Textbook?

Recently adopt an Open Textbook from the BCcampus textbook colleciton? Tell us about it!

7. Open Textbook FAQ

Frequently asked questions about Open Textbooks.



Free Open Textbook :Adopt-Reuse-Revise-Remix-Redistribute

Find open and free textbooks that may be suitable for use in  college/university courses from the following list. For descriptions of these open textbooks, see listings in MERLOT and OER Commons. Most of the textbooks on this list have Creative Commons (CC) open licenses or GNU-Free Document License. Others are U.S. government documents in the public domain (PD).Many other textbooks are free to view online but are NOT OPEN for reuse and customization. See Copyrighted Digital Textbooks for a list of learning content without open licenses.


Textbooks by Subject

Languages & Communications

The Art of Community (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Business Communication for Success* (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Communication Skills (custom license)
Communications Skills (BCA) (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Communication Skills for Personal and Professional Development: The Seven Challenges Approach (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Communication Theory (CC-BY-SA)
Communications by (CC-BY-SA)
Deutsch im Blick  (CC-BY-NC-ND) BoundCopy
Francais Interactif (CC-BY-NC-ND) (BoundCopy)
French (CC-NC-BY-SA)
From Sound to Meaning: Hearing, Speech and Language (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Giving Presentations (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Hearing (CC-BY-SA)
How to Communicate as a Health Volunteer (CC-BY)
How Language Works (GFDL)
How to Present with Twitter (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Internet for Modern Languages (CC-BY-NC)
Key Skill Assessment: Communication*,1 (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Liberte (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Mandarin Chinese (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Mobile ESL* (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Open Translations (GNU-GPL)
Oral Communications
Spanish (wikibooks) (CC-BY-SA)
Spanish I(CC-BY-SA)
We Are the Media (CC)
American Literature Before 1860 (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Bulfinch’s Mythology (PD) (BoundCopy)
bullet-3 Literature, the Humanities, and Humanity (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Open Milton (CC-BY)
Open Shakespeare (CC-BY)
Outline of American Literature* (PD)
Studies in Classic American Literature by D.H. Lawrence* (PD)
USA Literature in Brief ( * (PD)
An Introduction to Philosophy* (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Computers and Ethics (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Consciousness Studies (Assayer review) (CC-BY-SA)
David Hume (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Formal Logic (CC-BY-SA)
Historical Introduction to Philosophy (CC-BY-SA)
Internet for Philosophy (CC-BY-NC)
Introducing Philosophy (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Introduction to Ethical Studies (GDFL)
Introduction to Formal Logic (CC-BY-SA)
Introduction to Logic (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Logic and Proofs (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Medical Ethics (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Philosophy of Religion (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Reading for Philosophical Inquiry: A Brief Introduction to Philosophical Thinking, An Open Source Reader, (GFDL)
Walden by H.D. Thoreau (PD)
Political Science
bullet-3 American Government (CC-BY-NC-ND)
American Government and Politics in the Information Age (CC-BY-NC-SA) Boundcopy
The 9/11 Commission Report (PD)
Basic Political Concepts (CC-BY)
The CIA World Factbook (PD)
Democracy in Brief (PD)
Human Rights in Brief (PD)
Nationalism, Self-determination and Succession (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Political Science by (CC-BY-SA)
The Body: A Phenomenological Psychological Perspective (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Challenging Ideas in Mental Health (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Challenging Ideas in Mental Health (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience (CC-BY-SA)
eSource: Behavioral and Social Science Research (PD)
Groups and Teamwork (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Internet for Psychology* (CC-BY-NC)
Introduction to Psychology BoundCopy
Introduction to Psychology Wikibook* (CC-BY-SA) NR
The Making of Individual Differences (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Mental Health, NIMH, NIH (PD)
Mental Health Practice (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Psychology by (CC-BY-SA)
Psychology A Student Friendly Approach *(custom copyright) BoundCopy
The Psychology Of Emotions, Feelings and Thoughts* (CC-BY) NR
Psychology in the 21st Century* (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Social Psychology Wikibook (CC-BY-SA)
Starting with Psychology* (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Systems Thinking and Practice (CC-BY-NC-SA)


A History of the United States, Vol. 2 (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
A Short Introduction to Japanese History(Shotoku) (Custom)
About America: Women of Influence (PD)
Academic American History (CC-BY-NC-ND) Adopted
The Berlin Wall 20 Years After (PD) (BoundCopy)
A Comprehensive Outline of World History 1 (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
The French Revolution (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
History by (CC-BY-SA)
bullet-3 History in the Making: A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877 (CC-BY-SA) (BoundCopy)
History of Western Art and Civilization (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
The Holocaust (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Internet for History* (CC-BY-NC)
Our Documents Teacher Sourcebook (PD)
Outline of U.S. History *1 (PD) Adopted
Stories of the Underground Railroad (PD)
Teaching with Documents (PD)
U.S. History (CC-BY-SA)
US History since 1877(CC-BY) (BoundCopy)


Alternative Microeconomics/Basic Microeconomics** (CC-BY)
Econometrics(custom copyright)
Economics by (CC-BY-SA)
Financial Analysis(CC-BY-NC-SA)
Historical Beginnings The Federal Reserve(PD)
Industrial Organization: A Contract Based Approach (CC-BY-NC)
International Economics: Theory and Policy by Steve Suranovic (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
International Finance: Theory and Policy by Steve Suranovic (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
International Trade: Theory and Policy by Steve Suranovic (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Internet for Economics(CC-BY-NC)
Introduction to Economic Analysis(CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
The Joy of Economics(custom copyright)
Living Economics(CC-BY-SA)
Microeconomics: Theory Through Applications(CC-BY-NC-SA)
Money and Banking(CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Money and Banking v1.1 by Robert E. Wright and Vincenzo Quadrini (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
New Rules for the New Economy (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Outline of the U.S. Economy(PD)
Political Economy(CC-BY-SA)
Principles of Economics(CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Principles of Economics v1.1   (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Principles of Macroeconomics* (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Principles of Macroeconomics v1.1 by Libby Rittenberg and Timothy Tregerthen (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Principles of Microeconomics* (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Project Based Economics (CC-BY-SA)
Quantum Microeconomics (CC-BY-NC)
Upsetting the Offset: The Political Economy of Carbon Markets(CC-BY-NC-ND) NEW!
U.S. Economy in Brief (PD)
U.S. Monetary Policy (PD)
The Wealth of Networks:How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
English & Composition
A Celebration of Women Writers (PD)
Clear Simple: Developing Effective Print Materials for Low-Literate Readers (PD)
College Writing (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Electronic Literature Collection (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Exploring Perspectives: A Concise Guide to Analysis(CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
The Flat World Knowledge Handbook by Miles McCrimmon (BoundCopy)
Journalism 2.0 (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Methods of Discovery: A Guide to Research Writing* (CC-BY-NC-SA)
The Process of Research Writing(CC-BY-NC-SA)
Rhetoric and Composition* (CC-BY-SA)
Start Writing Fiction (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Style for Students Online: Effective Technical Writing in the Information Age* (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Technical Report Writing (PD)
Three Modules on Clear Writing Style: An Introduction to The Craft of Argument*(CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
University of North Carolina College Writing (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Writing by (CC-BY-SA)
Writing Commons (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Writing for Success by Scott McLean (BoundCopy)
Writing Skills for Business English*(custom)
Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 1 *(CC-BY-NC-ND) (BoundCopy)
Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2 *(CC-BY-NC-ND) (BoundCopy)
The Art of Community (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Democracy in America by Alexis de Tocqueville (PD)
eSource: Behavioral and Social Science Research (PD)
Internet for Sociology (CC-BY-NC)
Introduction to Social Network Methods (custom license)
Introducing Social Work Practice (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to Sociology* (wikibook)(CC-BY-SA)
Introduction to Sociology (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Introductory Sociology (CC-BY) Adopted BoundCopy
Intro to Sociology* (CC-BY) Adopted (See video of endorsement)
Living in a Globalised World (CC-BY-NC-SA)
The Meaning of Crime (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Minority Studies: A Brief Sociological Text (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Negation: Essays in Critical Thinking (CC-BY-NC-ND)
The Social in Social Science (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Reading Evidence *(CC-BY-NC-SA)
Social Problems: Who Makes Them? (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Sociology by (CC-BY-SA)
Sociology of the Family (CC-BY)
Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Brief Ed. (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Comprehensive Ed. (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen (PD)
Accounting I* (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Accounting II* (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Accounting by (CC-BY-SA)
Accounting Principles: A Business Perspective (Financial) (CC-BY-NC-ND) BoundCopy
Accounting Principles: A Business Perspective (Managerial) (CC-BY-NC-ND) BoundCopy
Business by (CC-BY-SA)
Business Communication for Success* by Scott McLean (customBoundCopy
Business Ethics* (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Business Fundamentals* (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Communication Skills for Personal and Professional Development: The Seven Challenges Approach (CC-BY)BoundCopy
Core Concepts of Marketing* by John Burnett (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Corporate Finance, 2nd ed (Custom) BoundCopy
Democratizing Innovation* (CC-BY-NC-ND) BoundCopy
Economic Aspects and Business Models of Free Software (GFDL)
Electronic Commerce: The Strategic Perspective (2nd ed.)* (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Ethics and Economy (CC-BY-NC-ND) BoundCopy
eMarketing: The Essential Guide to Online Marketing* (peer reviews also at MERLOT) (CC-BY-SA) BoundCopy
Entrepreneurial Behavior (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Exploring Business* (CC-NC-BY-SA) BoundCopy
Finance by (CC-BY-SA)
GAPPS A Framework for Performance Based Competency Standards (Custom)
Green IS: Building Sustainable Business Practices (CC-BY)
Innovation Happens Elsewhere (CC-NC–BY-SA) BoundCopy
International Business and the Certified Global Business Professional (CC-BY-SA)
Internet for Business and Management (CC-BY-NC)
Launch! Advertising and Promotion in Real Time1 (CC-NC-BY-SA) BoundCopy
Management by (CC-BY-SA)
Management Accounting Concepts and Techniques (BY-NC-SA)
Managing Groups and Teams (CC-BY-SA)
The Market-Led Organisation (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Marketing by (CC-BY-SA)
Organizational Behavior (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Personal Finance (license tbd) BoundCopy
Preparing a Project (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Principles of Entrepreneurship (PD)
The Principles of Management*,1 (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
bullet-3 Project Management (CC-BY-SA)
left-bullet Project Management Skills for All Careers – 2nd edition by PM World and TAP-a-PM (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Project Management for Scientists and Engineers (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Project Management from Simple to Complex* (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy (CC-BY-NC)
Risk Management for Enterprises and Individuals (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Six Steps to Job Search Success (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Social Marketing (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Sustainability (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Sustainability, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship* (CC-BY-NC-SA)
The Sustainable Business* (license tbd)
The Business Ethics Workshop (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
The Legal and Ethical Environment of Business (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Tourism The International Business (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Unleashing the Ideavirus (Assayer review) (Custom) BoundCopy
Value Networks and the true nature of collaboration* (CC-BY-ND)


A Staff Guide to Open Educational Resources (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Access to Knowledge: A Guide for Everyone (CC-BY-SA) (BoundCopy)
Classroom Management and Supervision (CC-BY-SA)
Cognition, Affect, and Learning (CC-BY)
College Success (CC-BY-NC)
Common Wisdom: Peer Production of Educational Materials* (CC-BY-NC) (BoundCopy)
Comparative Education (CC-BY-SA)
Contemporary Issues in Education (CC-BY-SA)
Copyright for Librarians (CC-BY-SA)
Creating Open Educational Resources (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Curriculum Studies (CC-BY-SA)
Dance Skills (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Developmental Psychology (for Educators) (CC-BY-SA)
bullet-3 Distinction Through Discovery : A Research-Oriented First Year Experience (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Education for a Digital World* (CC-BY-SA)
Education for an Information Age (custom)
Educational Communication (CC-BY-SA)
Educational Evaluation and Testing (CC-BY-SA)
Educational Management (CC-BY-SA)
Educational Psychology* (CC-BY)
Educational Research (CC-BY-SA)
Essential Microsoft Office 2000 (custom)
Essential Microsoft Office 2003 (custom)
Essential Microsoft Office 2007: Tutorials for Teachers (custom)
Essential Microsoft Office XP (custom)
Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching, and Technology (CC-BY-SA)
Experiencing the Humanities (Custom)
Facilitating Online* (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Handbook of Emerging Technologies for Learning (CC-BY-NC)
History of Education (CC-BY-SA)
How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, School (Custom) (BoundCopy)
ICT Integration in Biology (CC-BY-SA)
ICT Integration in Chemistry (CC-BY-SA)
ICT Integration in Mathematics (CC-BY-SA)
ICT Integration in Physics (CC-BY-SA)
Instructional Design Models (CC-BY-NC-SA)*
Introduction to General Psychology (for Educators) (CC-BY-SA)
Introduction to Guidance and Counseling (for educators) (CC-BY-SA)
Learning Psychology (CC-BY-SA)
Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places and Pursuits (Custom) (BoundCopy)
Learning Spaces (Custom)
Managing a School’s Educational Resources (CC-BY-SA)
Media Education: Creativity (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Media Education: Assessment (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Media Education: Metacognition (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Media Education: Integration (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Media Education Kit (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Open Collaboration Encyclopedia (CC-BY-SA) (BoundCopy)
OER Handbook for Educators 1.0 (CC-BY)
Open Educational Content – Introduction and Tutorials (CC-BY-SA)
Open Educational Resources Conversations in Cyberspace (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Philosophy of Education (CC-BY-SA)
Reflective Teaching (CC-BY-SA)
The Art of Reading at University (CC-BY-SA)
The CU Online Handbook (CC-BY-NC-SA)
The Instructional Use of Learning Objects (OPL) (BoundCopy)
The Learning Marketplace: Meaning, Metadata and Content Syndication in the Learning Object Economy (CC-BY-NC-SA)
The Public Domain Enclosing the Commons of the Mind(CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Social and Cultural Foundations of American Education (CC-BY-SA)
Sociology of Education (CC-BY-SA)
Special Needs Education (CC-BY-SA)
Study and Learning Skills (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Study Skills (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Teaching Methodology (CC-BY-SA)
The Theory and Practice of Online Learning,* 2nd ed. (CC-NC-BY-SA) (BoundCopy)
Training Educators to Design and Develop Open and Distance Learning Materials (CC-BY-SA)
Viral Spiral (CC-BY-NC) (BoundCopy)

Health & Nursing

Active Healthy Lifestyles (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Anatomy and Physiology of Animals   (CC-BY-SA)
The Chemistry of Health (PD)
Child Health (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Communicable Diseases (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Contemporary Health Concerns (CC-BY-SA)
Developing Anaesthesia (CC-BY)
Disaster Management (CC-BY-NC)
Diversity and Difference in Communication (CC-BY-SA)
Drugs, Brains, and Behavior – The Science of Addiction (PD)
Emergency and Risk Management Case Studies (PD)
Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine Preventable Disease 10th ed. (PD)
eSource: Behavioral and Social Science Research (PD)
Finding Information in Health and Lifestyle (CC-BY-SA)
First Aid (CC-BY-SA)
Fundamentals of Emergency Management (PD)
Health Education (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Health is Everywhere: Unraveling the Mystery of Health (CC-BY-NC-SA)
History of Medicine (PD)
HIV and AIDS (custom copyright)
Human Nutrition (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Infection Prevention (custom copyright)
Integrated Safety, Health and Environmental Management: An Introduction (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Internet for Health and Safety (CC-BY-NC)
Introduction to Personal Hygiene (CC-BY-SA)
Issues in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Medical Knowledge Base (BY-NC-SA)
Medicines by Design (PD)
Medicine Transformed: On Access to Health Care (CC-BY-NC-SA)
MedlinePlus (PD)
Moral and Ethical Principles in End of Life Care (CC-BY-NC-SA)
NIH Curriculum Supplement Series (PD)
Nutrition: Proteins (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Obesity: Balanced Diets and Treatment (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Occupational Health (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Public Health (Custom)
Sexuality and Sexual Health (custom copyright)
Sexually Transmitted Infections (custom copyright)
Understanding Cardiovascular Diseases (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Vaccination (CC-BY-NC-SA)


The Basic Elements of Music (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Guitar (CC-BY-SA)
Internet for Music* (CC-BY-NC)
Introduction to Music Theory (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Musictheory.Net (CC-BY)
Reading Music: Common Notation (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Understanding Basic Music Theory (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)


bullet-3 A Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra (CC-BY-ND-NC) (BoundCopy)
Abstract Algebra: Theory and Applications* (GFDL) (BoundCopy)
Advanced Algebra II: Conceptual Explanations1 (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Advanced Algebra II: Activities and Homework (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
A First Course in Linear Algebra* (Assayer review) (GFDL) (BoundCopy)
Algebra by (CC-BY-SA)
Algebra is Vital by Leslie Elizabeth Buck (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Algebra 11 (CC-BY-SA)
Algebra Review (CC-NC)
Analysis by Khalagai (CC-BY-SA)
Applied Discrete Structures by Alan Doerr and Kenneth Levasseur (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Applied Finite Mathematics* (CC-BY)
Basic Algebra1 (CC-BY-SA)
Basic Analysis: Introduction to Real Analysis (CC-BY-NC-SA)
bullet-3 Basic Arithmetic Student Handbook by Dept. of Mathematics, Scottsdale Community College (CC-BY-SA)
Basic Math Textbook for the Community College (CC-BY)
Basic Mathematics by Khalagai(CC-BY-SA)
Basics of Algebra and Analysis for Computer Science (custom license)
Calculus*,1 by Benjamin Crowell (CC-BY-SA) (BoundCopy)
Calculus by Masenge (CC-BY-SA)
Calculus by David Guichard (CC-BY-NC-SA) Adopted
CK-12 Calculus (CC-BY-SA)
CK-12 Geometry (CC-BY-SA)
CK-12 Trigonometry (CC-BY-SA)
Collaborative Statistics*,1 (CC-BY) (See Statistics page for other statistics textbooks) (BoundCopy)
College Algebra 1  (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
bullet-3 College Trigonometry (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Diagrams, Charts and Graphs (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Difference Equations to Differential Equations (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Differential Equations by Ekol (CC-BY-SA)
Dimensions* (geometry) (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Elementary Algebra* (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Elementary Algebra by John Redden (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Elementary Calculus An Approach Using Infinitesimals (Assayer review) (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Elementary Linear Algebra (CC-BY)
The Essential Elementary & Intermediate Algebra by Jon Blakely (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Free College Algebra Textbook* (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Fundamentals of Mathematics* (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Gentle Introduction to the Arts of Mathematics (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Geometry (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Geometry by Cherinda (CC-BY-SA)
Intermediate Algebra* by Department of Mathematics, College of the Redwoods (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Intermediate Algebra*1 by Jon Blakely (CC-BY-NC-SA)
bullet-3 Intermediate Algebra Student Workbook by Dept. of Mathematics, Scottsdale Community College (CC-BY-SA)
Intermediate Algebra (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
An Introduction to Complex Numbers (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to Matrix Algebra (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Introduction To Real Analysis (Custom)
bullet-3 Introductory Algebra Student Handbook by Dept. of Mathematics, Scottsdale Community College (CC-BY-SA)
Linear Algebra (Assayer review) (CC-BY-SA)
bullet-3 Linear Algebra by Cherney, Denton, and Waldron (CC-BY-NC-Sa)
Linear Algebra by Chihaka (CC-BY-SA)
Linear Algebra, Theory and Applications (CC-BY)
Linear Programming by Mtetwa (CC-BY-SA)
Math in a Sustainable Society (CC-BY-NC)
Math in Society (CC-BY-SA) (BoundCopy)
Mathematics (The Free High School Science Texts)1 (GFDL)
Mechanics by Chihaka(CC-BY-SA)
Notes on Diffy Qs: Differential Equations for Engineers (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Number Theory by Cheqe(CC-BY-SA)
A Modern Formal Logic Primer (Custom)
Numbers, Units, and Arithmetic (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Numerical Methods by Masenge(CC-BY-SA)
Numerical Methods with Applications1 (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
PreAlgebra (College of the Sequoias)(Custom)
Prealgebra Textbook (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
bullet-3 Precalculus (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy Part 1BoundCopy Part 2)
Precalculus: An Investigation of Functions (CC-BY-SA)
Probability and Statistics by Chege (CC-BY-SA)
A Problem Text in Advanced Calculus (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Proofs and Concepts the Fundamentals of Abstract Mathematics (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Open Trigonometry1 (CC-BY-SA)
Ratios, Proportion and Percentages (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Real Functions and Graphs (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Reasonable Algebraic Functions (terse) (GFDL) BoundCopy
Reasonable Algebraic Functions (verbose) (GFDL)
Reasonable Basic Algebra (GFDL) BoundCopy
Reasonable Decimal Arithmetic (GDFL)
Rounding and Estimation (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Squares, Roots and Powers (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Trigonometry (GFDL) (BoundCopy)
Understanding Algebra*,1(CC-BY-NC)
Vector Calculus* (GFDL) (BoundCopy)
Worldwide Differential Calculus 2009 (CC-BY-NC-ND) (BoundCopy)

Statistics & Probability

Causal and Statistical Reasoning (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Concepts and Applications of Inferential Statistics (Custom)
Collaborative Statistics*,1 (CC-BY) Adopted BoundCopy
From Algorithms to Z-Scores: Probabilistic and Statistical Modeling in Computer Science1 (CC-BY-ND)
Getting Started with SPSS (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to Probability1 (GFDL)
Introduction to Statistical Thought1 (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introductory Statistics (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Introductory Statistics: Concepts, Models, and Applications 1 (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study*,1 (PD)
OpenIntro Statistics (CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0) BoundCopy
Probability and Statistics1 (custom license)
Quantitative Information Analysis III (subset of Collab. Stats) (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Statistics (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Statistics Wikibook1 (CC-BY-SA)

Engineering & Electronics

All About Circuits (DSL) (CC-BY)
Basics of Fluid Mechanics (GDFL)
Chemical Engineering Process Dynamics and Controls (CC-BY)
Communication Systems (CC-BY-SA)
Data Coding Theory (CC-BY-SA)
Discrete Time Signals and Systems (CC-BY-NC-SA) (BoundCopy)
Electronic Circuit Analysis (CC-BY)
Engineering Statics (CC-NC-BY-SA)
A First Course in Electrical and Computer Engineering(CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Fundamentals of Die Casting Design (GDFL)
Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering I (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics (GDFL) (BoundCopy)
Introduction to Physical Electronics (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Laboratory Manual for Computer Programming with Python and Multisim (CC-BY-NC-SA)
bullet-3 Laboratory Manual for AC Electrical Circuits (CC-BY-NC-SA)
bullet-3 Laboratory Manual for DC Electrical Circuits (CC-BY-NC-SA)
bullet-3 Laboratory Manual for Linear Electronics (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Lessons in Electric Circuits, Vol I DC* (custom license)
Mechanics of Engineering (custom license)
Project Management for Scientists and Engineers* (CC-BY) (BoundCopy)
Socratic Electronics A Resource for Inquiry-Based Electronics Instruction (CC-BY)


21st Century Physics (CC-BY-SA)
The Age of Einstein (PD)
All About Circuits (DSL)
Atomic Physics (CC-BY-SA)
A Radically Modern Approach to Introductory Physics – Vol 1 (GFDL)
A Radically Modern Approach to Introductory Physics – Vol 2 (GFDL)
Basic Physics (CC-BY-SA)
Calculus-Based Physics(CC-BY-SA)
Chaos: Classical and Quantum (GFDL)
College Physics (CC-BY) BoundCopy
College Physics for Students of Biology and Chemistry (2003) (Custom)    page down to “Online Texts”
Conceptual Physics (CC-BY-SA)
Electricity and Magnetism (CC-BY-SA)
Electricity and Magnetism 2 (CC-BY-SA)
Electronics by Obwoya (CC-BY-SA)
FHSST Physics (CC-BY-SA)
General Relativity (CC-BY-SA)
Geometrical Optics and Physical Optics (CC-BY-SA)
Internet for Physics (CC-BY-NC)
Mathematical Physics I (CC-BY-SA)
Mathematical Physics II (CC-BY-SA)
Mechanics (from Light and Matter) (CC-BY-SA)
Mechanics 1 (CC-BY-SA)
Mechanics II (CC-BY-SA)
Motion Mountain – The Adventure of Physics (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Nuclear Physics (CC-BY-SA)
Open Source Physics (Custom)
People’s Physics Book* adopted (CC-BY-SA)
Physics OLI (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Physics for K-12 (CC-BY)
Physics Light and Matter (CC-BY-SA)
Properties of Matter (CC-BY-SA)
Quantum Mechanics (CC-BY-SA)
Simple Nature (Assayer review) (CC-BY-SA)
Solid State Physics (CC-BY-SA)
Statistical Physics (CC-BY-SA)
The Restless Universe (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Thermal Physics (CC-BY-SA)
Visualizing Electricity and Magnetism (CC-BY)

Biology & Genetics

Animal Diversity (CC-BY-SA)
BioFundamentals: Introductory Molecular Biology (CC-BY-SA-NC)
Biology by (CC-BY-SA)
Cell Biology and Genetics (CC-BY-SA)
CK-12 Biology (CC-BY-SA)
CK-12 Biology I – Honors (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Computing Life (PD)
Diversity of Algae and Plants (CC-BY-SA)
Ecology and Environment (CC-BY-SA)
Encyclopedia of Life (CC-BY-SA)
Evolution Biology (CC-BY-SA)
Genes and Disease (PD)
Help Me Understand Genetics Handbook (PD)
Human Physiology (CC-BY-SA)
Internet for Microbiology (CC-BY-NC)
Inside the Cell – Biology (PD)
Microbiology by (CC-BY-SA)
Microbiology and Mycology (CC-BY-SA)
Modern Biology (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Molecular Biology Lab Manual (CC-BY)
Nucleic Acids and Chromatin (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Online Biology Book (Custom)
Physiology by (CC-BY-SA)
Plant and Animal Physiology (CC-BY-SA)
Rediscovering Biology1 (Custom)
The Brain: Understanding Neurobiology Through the Study of Addiction (Custom)
The New Genetics (PD)
The Structures of Life (PD)
What Do Genes Do? (CC-BY-NC)
What is Biodiversity (CC-BY)
What is the Genome Made of? (CC-BY-NC)


Chem I Virtual Textbook (CC-BY-NC)
Chemical Principles (Custom)
Chemistry (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Chemistry (The Free High School Science Texts) (GFDL)
Chemistry (Curriki) (CC-BY)
Chemistry by (CC-BY-SA)
The Chemistry of Health
ChemPrime (CC-BY-NC-SA)
ChemWiki (CC-BY-NC-SA)
ChemWiki – Biological Chemistry* (CC-BY-NC-SA)
ChemWiki – Analytical Chemistry (CC-BY-NC-SA)
ChemWiki – History of Chemistry (CC-BY-NC-SA)
ChemWiki – Inorganic Chemistry (CC-BY-NC-SA)
ChemWiki – Organic Chemistry (CC-BY-NC-SA)
ChemWiki – Physical Chemistry (CC-BY-NC-SA)
ChemWiki – Theoretical Chemistry (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Collections:Texts:Chemistry (CC-BY-SA-NC)
Concept Development Studies in Chemistry* (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Environmental Chemistry by Tessema (CC-BY-SA)
Getting Started (CC-BY-NC)
Industrial Chemistry (CC-BY-SA)
Inorganic Chemistry by Kowenje (CC-BY-SA)
Internet for Chemistry (CC-BY-NC)
Introductory Chemistry (Custom) BoundCopy
Introductory Chemistry 1 by Shiundu & Yusuf (CC-BY-SA)
Introductory Chemistry 2 by Tessema (CC-BY-SA)
Macromolecules in Biological System(CC-BY-SA)
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (PD) BoundCopy
Open Source Chemistry Course (CA Textbook) (CC-BY)
Organic Chemistry by Daley & Daley (ACARR)
Organic Chemistry 1 by Mhehe & Korane (CC-BY-SA)
Organic Chemistry 2 by Mhehe (CC-BY-SA)
Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis, Volume I (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis, Volume II (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Solutions Manual for Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Physical Chemistry 1 by Munyaki (CC-BY-SA)
Physical Chemistry 2 by Munyati (CC-BY-SA)
Separation, Electroanalytical and Spectrochemical Techniques (CC-BY-SA)
The Basics of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (Custom)
Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Volumetric Chemical Analysis (CC-BY-SA)

Computer Science

Accessibility of eLearning (CC-BY-NC-SA)
A Conceptual Guide to 3 (CC-BY-SA)
A College Student’s Guide to Computers in Education (CC-BY-NC)
A Faculty Member’s Guide to Computers in Higher Education (CC-BY-NC)
Advanced Topics in Learning Object Design and Reuse (CC-BY)
AJAX Programming (CC-BY)
Applescript for Absolute Starters (CC-BY)
Basic Computing Using Windows (CC-BY-SA)
Basic Linux Commands (CC-BY)
Basic Skills (CC-BY-NC-ND)
BecomeAnXcoder (CC-BY)
Blown to Bits: Your Life, Liberty, and Happiness After the Digital Explosion* (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Building iPhone Apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Building Skills in Object-Oriented  Design (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Building Skills in Programming (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Building Skills in Python (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Business Information Systems: Design an App for That  (custom) BoundCopy
Cascading Style Sheets (CC-BY-SA)
The Cathedral and the Bazaar (Open Publication License)
CGI Programming on the World Wide Web (Assayer review) (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Complete Guide to Google Wave* (CC-BY-SA) BoundCopy
Computer Networking: Principles, Protocols and Practice (CC-BY)
A Conceptual Guide to NeoOffice 2 for Mac OS X (CC-BY-SA)
Database Development Lifecycle (CC-BY-NC-SA)
A Designer’s Log: Case Studies in Instructional Design (CC-BY-NC-ND) click on ebook BoundCopy
Digital Darkroom Fundamentals for Mac OS X (CC-BY-SA)
Designing the User Interface (CC- BY-NC-SA)
Discovering Information Systems: An Exploratory Approach (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Distributed Systems (CC-BY)
Dive into HTML5 (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Dive into Python (GFDL) BoundCopy
Education for an Information Age (custom)
Electronic Commerce: The Strategic Perspective (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Eloquent JavaScript: A modern Intro to Programming (CC-BY) BoundCopy
bullet-3 Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction (CC-BY-ND)
Essential Microsoft Office 2000 (custom)
Essential Microsoft Office 2003 (custom)
Essential Microsoft Office 2007: Tutorials for Teachers (custom)
Essential Microsoft Office XP (custom)
Finding Information in Information Technology and Computing (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Firefox Manual (CC-BY-SA)
Flash Tutorials (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
FLOSS Manuals (GNU-GPL) BoundCopy
Free as in Freedom (GFDL) BoundCopy
The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It (CC-BY-NC-SA)
GIS Commons: An Introductory Textbook on Geographic Information Systems (CC-BY-SA)
GNU/Linux Advanced Administration (GFDL)
Graphics and Information Management Systems (CC-BY-SA)
Grokking the Gimp (Assayer review) (Open Publication LicenseBoundCopy
How to Think Like a Computer Scientist: Learning with Python (Assayer review) (GFDL)
HyperText Markup Language (CC)
Information on the Web (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Information System: A Manager’s Guide to Harnessing Technology V1.1 BoundCopy
Information Systems: A Manager’s Guide to Harnessing Technology v1.2 (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Information Systems (CC-BY)
Internet for Computer Science (CC-BY-NC)
Internet Superuser Textbook (CC-BY-NC)
Interpreting Information Systems in Organizations (CC-BY)
Introducing ICT Systems (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to C Programming (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to Computer Science* (CC-BY-SA)
Introduction to Computing Explorations in Language, Logic, and Machines  (CC-BY-NA-SA) BoundCopy
An introduction to Data and Information (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to Databases and MySQL (CC-BY)
Introduction to Digital Logic with Laboratory Exercises (CC-BY)
Introduction to Free Software (GFDL)
Introduction to HTML (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to ICT (CC-BY-SA)
Introduction to Microsoft Excel 2007 (CC-BY)
Introduction to Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 (CC-BY-SA)
Introduction to Microsoft Windows XP (CC-BY)
Introduction to Microsoft Word 2007 (CC-BY)
Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming Using Visual C# Express Edition (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to SCORM (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to Software Development (GFDL)
Introduction to UNIX (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Introduction to Web Applications Development (GFDL)
ItrainOnline Multimedia Training Kit (CC-BY-NC)
jQuery Fundamentals (CC-BY-SA)
Learning 2.0 for Associations (CC-BY-NC-SA)Net
Lessons in Electric Circuits (Assayer review) (Design Science License)
Linux 101 (Assayer review) (PD)
Linux for IT Managers (CC-BY-SA)
MacRuby: The Definitive Guide(CC-BY-NC-ND)
Multimedia Design and Applications(CC-BY-SA)
Network Applications (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Nework Security (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Non-Programmer’s Tutorial for Python 2.0 (CC-BY-SA) Manual*(GNU-GPL)
Open Source Development with CVS, 3rd Edition (GNU-GPL) BoundCopy
Operating Systems for Single-Threaded Computers (CC-BY-SA)
Principles of Computer System Design: An Introduction (Part II) (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Principles of Object-Oriented Programming (CC-BY)
Producing Open Source Software (CC-BY-SA)
Programming from the Ground Up (GFDL) BoundCopy
Programming Fundamentals – A Modular Structured Approach (CC-BY) BoundCopy
Programming in C (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Programming Languages (CC-BY)
Programming Languages: Application and Interpretation (CC-NC-BY-SA) BoundCopy
Programming Using Java (CC-BY-SA)
Project Management from Simple to Complex (CC-BY-NC-SA) BoundCopy
Python for Informatics: Exploring Information (CC-BY-SA)
  • (Remix of “Think Python: How to Think Like a Computer Scientist
Representing and Manipulating Data in Computers (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs (CC-BY-NC) BoundCopy
Stanford Engineering Everywhere – Introduction to Computer Science (CC-BY)
Student Tools (videos) (CC-BY-ND)
Successful Project Management (CC-BY-SA-NC)
Text-Based Productivity Tools (CC-BY-SA)
Think Python: An Introduction to Software Design (GFDL) BoundCopy
Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing (CC-BY-ND) BoundCopy
Using Excel 2002 (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Video Translation (GNU-GFL)
Wealth of Networks by Yochai Benkler (CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0) BoundCopy
Web Authoring Boot Camp (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Web Security (CC-BY)
What is a Wiki? (CC-BY-SA)
Wireless Networking in the Developing World (CC-BY-SA)
XML – Managing Data Exchange (CC-BY-SA)


Anatomy and Physiology of Animals (CC-BY-SA)
AP Environmental Science (CC-BY)
CK-12 Earth Science (CC-BY-SA)
CK-12 Life Science (CC-BY-SA)
Comparing Stars (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Deserts: Geology and Resources (PD)
Earth’s Physical Resources: Petroleum (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Earth Science (CC-BY)
Earth Systems, an Earth Science Course (CC-BY)
Earthquakes (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Empirical Research Design (CC-NC-BY-SA)
Energy Conservation and Environmental Protection (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Environmental Science in the 21st Century (custom license)
Evolution through Natural Selection (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Gene Manipulation in Plants (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Genes, Technology and Policy/The Science (CC-BY-SA)
Geology of the National Parks (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Geothermal Energy—Clean Power From the Earth’s Heat (PD)
GIS Commons: An Introductory Textbook on Geographic Information Systems (CC-BY-SA)
Interactive Science Simulations (CC-BY)
Internet for Environment (CC-BY-NC)
Introduction to Climate Dynamics and Climate Modelling (CC-BY-SA)
An Introduction to Sustainable Energy (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Intro to Physical Oceanography (Custom Copyright)
Life in the Palaeozoic (CC-BY-SA)
Nanotechnology (Custom license)
Nature of Geographic Information (CC-BY-NC-SA)
The Opensource Handbook of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CC-BY-SA)
Our Ocean Planet – Environmental Geoscience in the 21st Century (custom license)
Outline of American Geography (PD)
Own You Own Space (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Physical Geography (CC)
Plate Tectonics (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Radioactivity iLab Curricula (CC-BY-SA)
Science Appreciation: Introduction to Science Literacy (custom license)
The Science of Healthy Behaviors1 (PD)
Sustainability: A Comprehensive Foundation (CC-BY) BoundCopy
This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics1 (PD)


Open Educational Resources (OERs):Locating, Creating, Licensing and Utilizing OERs,

Why Open Education (and resources!) matters

Open Educational Resources (OERs) are the future of education, and that learners and educators everywhere benefit from their proliferation and use.The goals of OERs include defining OERs, demonstrating how to create and interact with them, and exploring how to include them in the teaching and learning processes.These OERs are openly licensed for reuse, usually through a Creative Commons license, which allows them to be integrated into any type of learning environment, including being printed and bound.

Learning Objectives:

  1. Recognize the different types and formats of Open Educational Resources and determine which are appropriate for their own Open Educational Resource development.
  2. Apply an understanding of free and open-access materials and peer production to their own Open Educational Resource development.
  3. Efficiently locate existing Open Educational Resources.
  4. Integrate existing Open Educational Resources into their own Open Educational Resource development.
  5. Construct an Open Educational Resource that assures copyright laws and ADA have been addressed.
  6. Choose and apply a Creative Commons License to their Open Educational Resource and understand the philosophy of sharing content.
  7. Apply and/or publish an Open Educational Resource within a classroom environment and/or repository.
  8. Accurately tag and/or establish the metadata for an Open Educational Resource.

Learning Outcomes:

You will be able to locate, modify, and/or develop, and effectively tag Open Educational Resources that will be integrated into the classroom or submitted to an Open Educational Resource repository.

Module:1 What is Open?

Open education, including Open Educational Resources, Open Textbooks, Peer Production, and Open Universities

Learning Outcomes:

  • Describe what an open textbook is and how it can be used.
  • Describe the peer production process and how it contributes to openness.
  • Explore the concept of open universities and the various definitions of “open” in that context.

There is a lot of confusion over the differences between the terms “free” and “open,”when we use the term “free,” it means no financial exchange for the product or service. Some see “free” as in “freedom”; however, most people associate it with no charge, and this is usually the best interpretation of a service or resource that is labeled as “free.”

Open encompasses both “free” (as in no charge, as discussed above) AND free as in freedom to reuse, revise, remix, and redistribute (the four R’s).

Open Content definition from David Wiley found at Wiley refers to open content as meeting the “4R’s”
  1. Reuse – the right to reuse the content in its unaltered / verbatim form (e.g., make a backup copy of the content)
  2. Revise – the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself (e.g., translate the content into another language)
  3. Remix – the right to combine the original or revised content with other content to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup)
  4. Redistribute – the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend)

So, we can say  that free and open are really not one in the same, even though people will sometimes use them interchangeably.


Wiley, D.(n.d.). Defining the open in open content.Retrieved from

What is an Open Educational Resource? Why is the OER movement growing in popularity so quickly? Why would you want to use or create OER materials? How do you license OER materials?

In the first of this OER webinar series, Cathy Casserly, CEO of Creative Commons, will answer these questions and more in an interview by Mitchell Levy, CEO of Happy About. Cathy is formerly the Director of OER Initiatives at The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. She was also Senior Partner and the Vice President for Innovation and Open Networks at the Carnegie Foundation. Several OER collections will be reviewed including College Open Textbooks, Connexions, MERLOT and SoftChalk CONNECT.

Open Textbooks: A Brief Overview

Module:2  Creative Commons and Copyright 

Learning Outcomes:

  • Develop an understanding of Copyright and Fair Use
  • Differentiate how and when to use the different types of CC licenses
  • Describe the decision making process related to selecting the “right” tool for the content and application
  • Discuss attribution and what needs to be considered when using work that has been licensed under CC
  • Use the CC license chooser when creating open content
  • Practice combining or “remixing” different types of open content

Copyright for Open Educational Resources

Creative Commons

Selecting the Correct Creative Commons License

Module:3 Locating and Evaluating Open Educational Resources

Learning Outcomes:

  • Explore how to locate open educational resources.
  • Explore the difference between an OER repository and a OER list.
  • Evaluate open educational resources.
  • Perform an OER search and share the results of his/her findings.

Finding and Using OER: The Where and the When

Where can you find quality OERs? Where are they distributed, and where and when should you use them? Are they easy to find? What kind of standards (quality, accessibility, licensing) are relevant and why are they important?

OER Repositories and Lists

Locating materials in the OER Commons, Part 1

Creative Commons License 
Locating materials in the OER Commons, Part 1 by Mark McBride is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at

Locating videos in the OER Commons, Part 2

Creative Commons License 
Locating materials in the OER Commons, Part 2 by Mark McBride is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at

Searching Florida’s Orange Grove

Creative Commons License 
Locating materials in the Orange Grove repository by Mark McBride is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at

Searching InTech 

Creative Commons License 
Searching through InTech by Mark McBride is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at

Some other tutorials and YouTube channels on searching OER repositories

OER Commons

Orange Grove Channel on YouTube

Creative Commons YouTube Channel

Reference list of commonly accessed OER repositories and lists.   Also browse this link to Wikieducator’s OER Handbook for Educators:

 Module:4 Creating Open Content

Learning Outcomes:

  • How to use  a variety of platforms to create open content
  • How to incorporate OER into your curriculum
  • The steps you need to follow when creating open content

Things to be consider,

Creating new open content vs. remixing content

Before you begin to create open educational resources, it is important to understand the difference between between licensing content you have created entirely on your own and licensing content that is a remix of other works (peer produced).

Creating your own content:

What are you creating?
Who are you creating it for?
How are you creating it?
How open will it be? (keep in mind the technology you use to create an OER)

Creating content that includes works from others (Remixing):

The biggest concern when remixing is making sure that the items you are mixing together are licensed in a way that is compatible with each other.

Questions to ask:

  1. Does the item you want to use have an open license (ie. creative commons, GNU)?
  2. Are all of your items licensed in a way that are compatible with each other?
  3. How will you license your new remix so that it is a legal license?

This takes a little practice to understand. For example, CC-BY-SA can’t be remixed with CC-BY-SA-NC. If you’re not sure why not, you may want to consider completing Pursuit 2: Copyright and Creative Commons before completing this pursuit. There you will find an OER Remix game developed by David Wiley that will allow you to practice your OER mixing skills.

Creating OER: The WHO and the HOW

These questions, and more, will be answered by Rob Abel from IMS Global and others. In addition we will discuss different models for developing OER materials and demonstrate various authoring tools for creating OER content.  Models for OER development will include work by the math department at the College of the Redwoods. You will also see how Jacqui Cain from Tacoma Community College, as part of a Bill and Melinda Gates foundation grant, re-purposed Sherlock Holmes stories to create a full online course in Remedial English.

The OER series is sponsored by College Open Textbooks,ConnexionsIMS GlobalMERLOT and SoftChalk

Who is developing OERs? Who should be? How are they doing it? How can standards allow OER content interoperability? How can standards assure quality? How can I get started? How can I find the tools for creating OER content?


Audio and Podcasts:


Audio resources are an excellent alternative (or complement) to text resources.  When integrated correctly, they enhance the learning experience by providing a quick reference for students and a personal touch to the subject matter.

Audio files are commonly referred to as podcasts.  The term ‘podcast’ is a hybrid of two words: iPod, referencing Apple’s mp3 player, and broadcast.  However, an iPod is not required to listen to a podcast.  A podcast is simply a broadcast of a digital recording that is made for downloading or streaming to a personal computer or portible electronic device (1). Typically, audio files prepared for delivery for podcasts are encoded (compressed) using the .mp3 compression algorithm.


Audio resources can either be created by the instructor or the instructor can choose to integrate existing open-licensed audio files into courses.

Creating Podcasts

There are many free services that allow users to easily create podcasts.  One of the most popular open source applications is audacity, which is used in tandem with the  LAME mp3 encoder.

Here is an excellent Youtube video that covers the installation process for Audacity:

Also, there are a number of other Audacity and LAME tutorials available on YouTube.(2)

Once created, audio files can be given a Creative Commons license and submitted to an OER repository.  Not sure what Creative Commons is?  Consider completing the ‘Creative Commons’ pursuit within this course and then using/producing CC licensed music files in/for your OER.

Creating Screencasts

screencast is a video recording of computer desktop activity that may also include narration. Narrated screencasts can be integrated into instruction to provide step-by-step procedural guidance in using software applications.(3)

A sampling of free screencasting software includes:

Searching For (and Integrating) Podcasts

Since these files can be quite large, it’s important to consider how they will be hosted.


“Hosted” means the location where the audio file will be stored.  When working within higher education, how audio files are hosted will vary by institution.  Some institutions have streaming servers for audio and video, while others provide alternative space for faculty to store files.  However, in most cases audio files should never be stored directly within a learning management system like ANGEL or Blackboard, as this inflates the size of the course and makes it difficult to work with.

A third option that is institution-agnostic is to host audio files within the cloud.  The “cloud” (or cloud computing) refers to the use of networked facilities for the storage and processing of data rather than a user’s local computer.  Access to files, data or services is typically done via the Internet. (4)  So, in short, audio files can be developed, stored, and accessed within applications that automatically host and stream the content.

Services that allow for the easy storage of MP3 podcasts include:

Ipadio is especially useful because it allows users to create broadcasts from their phones.  It also automatically transcribes the podcast, allowing users to post a transcript of the session (thereby ensuring accessibility for all).  Read more about audio, video and accessibility here.

iTunes isn’t listed above because it acts as a directory service, providing listing updates for podcasts, rather than actually hosting audio files. See the iTunes “making a podcast” documentation for more information on RSS feeds (XML files that the iTunes Store processes in order to create podcast listings)

(1) podcast, n. Third edition, September 2006; online version June 2012. <;

(2) Licensed for reuse by Wikiversity under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (“CC BY-SA”) Content created by Teemu Leinonen and Hans Poldoja in

(3) PC magazine. online version January 2012 <,2542,t=screencast&i=60127,00.asp&gt;

(4) cloud, n. Second edition, 1989; online version June 2012. <;; Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1891.

Video and Images:

 A picture says a thousand words – Images as OERs

Many of the concepts in this section of the pursuit mirror those within the previous page (Audio and Podcasts).  The following resources are provided to assist you in producing the highest quality multimedia OERs as possible, as well as ensuring that they are accessible to all learners.

Applications (Images)

Searching for Images

There are a number of ways to locate high-quality images that are licensed for reuse.  The best way to start is with a Creative Commons search:

It is important to note, however, that is not a search engine, but rather offers convenient access to search services provided by other independent organizations. CC has no control over the results that are returned. Do not assume that the results displayed in this search portal are under a CC license. You should always verify that the work is actually under a CC license by following the link. Since there is no registration to use a CC license, CC has no way to determine what has and hasn’t been placed under the terms of a CC license. If you are in doubt you should contact the copyright holder directly, or try to contact the site where you found the content.

This content licensed by Creative Commons under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Flickr also has a portion of its site devoted to Creative Commons licensed images.  These images are sorted by license type, and are easily searchable.  Many are also editable using the tips provided below; just be sure to check the license before altering and re-licensing an image:

If you need help downloading a Creative Commons licensed image from Flickr, try this wikiHow article entitled, How to Find and Download Creative Commons Images from Flickr.   Content on wikiHow is shared under a Creative Commons License.

Finally, Google’s advanced search features will also allow you to isolate Creative Commons licensed images.  For a detailed tutorial on the three search types listed in this pursuit, view the video below:

Creating Images

Though this topic does not technically fall under the OER umbrella, you may find these tips on composition, display, etc. useful as you begin your journey creating OER images:

Once you have taken your photos or located your photos using the search tips provided above, you may want to edit your photos to better suit your needs before licensing or re-licensing.  Here are some suggestions for photo editing software (Please note that not all of these programs are free or open.  You will need to determine which is a proper fit for your needs).  

  • Adobe Photoshop Express – web-based image editing software
  • Gimp – powerful free image editor for Windows, Mac and Linux
  • GimpShop – GIMP modified with an interface similiar to PhotoShop
  • Paint.NET – image editor for Windows
  • Picasa – photo management and editing software by Google
  • Seashore – free image editor for Mac

Additional information on this topic can be found in the article “7 Image Editing Tools to Create Top-Rate Visual Content” by John Haydon, which is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported.

Once you’ve created your photos, you will want to license (or re-license) them using Creative Commons.  You may also want to share or redistribute them.  Here are some suggestions:

Websites for sharing photos under open licenses:

  • Wikimedia Commons – open photo and media database by Wikimedia Foundation
  • Flickr – popular photo sharing site owned by Yahoo, only part of the images are under Creative Commons licenses
  • CC Wiki – Featured Image Sites – image sites using Creative Commons licenses

This content licensed for reuse by Wikiversity under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (“CC BY-SA”)


–  (video) should be providing the visual counterpart of the literary essay, should arouse our dreams, satisfy our hunger for beauty, take us on journeys, enable us to participate in events, present great drama and music, explore the sea and the sky and the woods and the hills. It should be our Lyceum, our Chautauqua…and our Camelot. (E.B. White, 1966)

Locating video

Like images, there are many ways to locate quality video that is licensed under a Creative Commons license.  As with images, the best place to start is with a Creative Commons search of Youtube or Vimeo, two of the most popular sources for videos on the web:

Remember that search limitations apply (as discussed above in ‘Images’).  It is always the responsibility of the user to determine whether or not the desired content is available under a Creative Commons license that allows for reuse and/or adaptation.

In addition to a Creative Commons search, there are a number of video databases that contain video licensed for reuse and/or adaptation.  However, it is important to remember that not all the videos on these sites are usable in OER.

  • Video Lectures – Hundreds of on-demand video lectures, most of which are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 license
  • TeacherTube – Videos for teachers by teachers
  • – Click on the ‘Videos’ link for a database of older films sorted by topic.  Also offers an increasing number of newer films
  • Sutree – Aggregator of how-to videos from across the web
  • Scivee – Videos on publications and research across the sciences (Link to Brochure)

Licensed for reuse by Wikiversity under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (“CC BY-SA”)

Editing Video

Anyone can create a video using a digital recorder, camera, or phone and then upload it to Youtube or Vimeo, but open source video editing options are very limited at the moment.  Those services that do exist are very limited and often produce poor quality results.  We encourage members of the OER community to offer their experiences with using open source video editing software in the Community Area of the course (use the course menu to navigate to this area).  We will continue to update this section of the course as we obtain new information on the topic.

Creating Accessible Video and Audio

User accessibility must be considered when creating and licensing OER videos so that users all are able to access the information contained therein.  A brief overview of the basic principles of creating accessible audio and video can be found here.  The page also discusses a number of solutions for the closed captioning and/or transcription of audio and video.

You may also wish to explore the principles of Universal Design for Learning, which will assist you in creating fully accessible OER content.

Creating an Open Course:

If you are interested in creating an open course, you must first find a platform in which to place your content. A good place to start is wikieducator. They offer free workshops throughout the year related to the development of content in the wiki and the CC license. They have a large support network and will be there for you every step of the way.

You might also consider an open source or free Learning Management System, such as Blackboard’s Coursesites (the LMS used for this course), Canvas, or Moodle.  It is important to review the features of each of these systems to determine which would be important to you.  You can read more about our choice of Coursesites for this open coursehere.

By now you’ve realized it is easy to get overwhelmed. There is so much out there that you may suddenly feel you are drowning in information, resources and tools. Take your time, start simply and pick the resources and tools you feel comfortable with. When creating your course, start with the traditional steps. First, think about who your audience will be. Who do you expect to enroll in your course? Is it meant to be used within your college or will you open it up like a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)?

Create a general outline of how you envision the course progressing, learning activities and what content you want to include. Then, slowly starting exploring what content is available and think about what tools you might want to use.

Another thing to keep in mind is the interest and demand for the development of OER as a way to make education more accessible. There are several grant opportunities available such as the Hewlett Foundations Grantseekers program.

Listen to this Google Hangout with Carol Yeager and Betty Hurley-Dasgupta from Empire State College as they discuss their experiences with developing and offering open courses and MOOCs:

Module:5 Open Access

Main source and references:

Free Textbook and Lecture Notes

21st Century Learning Products Books and Video Lectures
1-Page Accounting 
is concise with links to more complete explanations.
A Christian Thought Experiment

Academic Earth
 — many video lectures from the world’s top scholars on many subjects
Accounting Practice Sets 
— one designed for a pencil and two designed for software. 
Accounting Test Review Notes is a 48 page,  seven tests reviews of Accounting I and II.
Accounting Tests with Answers 
help you prepare for tests.   
Active Free Stuff 
has a developing education section.
Aussie Educator Textbooks— has an extensive collection of textbooks and portals
Bibliomania reference books, literature notes, study guides, articles, interviews… concise free textbooks contain advertising
Book Summaries— 5-8 page summaries of current political science books

Business  Courses are from major universities.
Business & Economics Video Lectures
Business  e-books tend to be applications oriented.
Business Textbook Internet Library many business areas
Capitalistic Democracy
Chaos Science Revealed! Order “Chaos”, on DVD!

Classics Sixty-one of the greatest classic and growing.
Community College Consortium Open Educational Resources Open Content
Computers Books For Business
Computer Education Libraries have free software, tutoring, and books. 
“Cosmology: History and Nature of Our Universe”, on DVD, Xplore the Mysteries of
Creative Commons— click on Find CC Licensed Work, enter the subject area
Curriculums, Individualized 
Debt, The Big Secret Behind U.S. Federal 
Dieting has an interesting approach.
Digital Book Index has 130 000 title records, 90 000 of these books are free.
Economic Textbooks has books for economics majors and professions.
Economics Test Review Notes
Education Libraries cover economic implications of education, improvements, reforms
Education, U.S. vs. Germany and Britain, Our Biggest Value Added Competitors
 is a subject I became interested in when I semi retired in 1989. It lead me to Individualized Curriculum Will Grow Better Students at a Lower Cost.
Education, Curriculums
Educational Audio/Video Libraries cove academic subjects
Effective Reasoning, How to Make Your Point! Order “Argumentation: The Study of Effective”
English Video Lectures-TOFEL 
English as a Second Language has extensive help.
English Video Lectures will help you learn English.
Excel Statistics Lab Manual is written in Excel. Use aprilblackie to unlock
Excel, Quick Statistics Course Using MicrosoftTM
 has free books, homework, and tests.
Flat World Knowledge has free textbooks with advertising.
Free Book Center has many computer and mathematic books.
Free High School Textbooks
Free Non-business Textbooks from Anthropology to Software and Sociology and beyond.
Free Online Books links to major collections plus subject collections. has an extensive, well organized collection.

Freeload Press
has free college textbooks paid for with advertising.
Get Free pdf books is extensive.
Globusz has great business books on other subjects.
Global Text Project click on the Books tab.
Grade Saver Online Study Guides: extensive,  grouped alphabetically for easier access.
Health Care Cost Statistics
 are not pretty.
has audio/video lectures on Algebra, American Government, Biology, Calculus, Environmental Science, Physics, Religion, and U.S. History
iLumina has sharable undergraduate teaching materials for chem, bio, physics, math, CS.
Iran, A Concise 20th Century History of Iran
Iraq, A  Concise 20th Century History of
Islamic Fundamentalism

Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (US)  provides content of popular courses.
Lecture Fox has physics, chemistry, computer sci
ence, mathematics, and the faculty mix.
Light and Matter open source physics textbooks
Math Texts from  Professor Mark Dubin, at the University of Colorado
Math, Interactivewhere you learn math by playing with it.
Mathematics textbooks online: George Cain, School of Mathematics, Georgia Inst Tech
MBA Prerequisite Books and Notes many business areas
MIT Open Course Ware 
Music, Learn the Language of Music! Order “Understanding the Fundamentals of Music”, DVD, CD, MP3!
National Academies Press, The ‘Read more than 3 000 books online.
Online Books Internet Library — many areas, especially literature.
Online College Classes also has books, podcasts, videos …

Online Medical Textbooks: has a wide a variety.
Online Science and Math Textbooks: biochem, chemistry, aeronautics, medical manuals 
Open Book Project encourages and coordinate collaboration among students teachers
Open College Textbooks beginning of 2009

Open Course Ware Finder allows search six open courseware sites simultaneously.
Open Culture lists books by subject.

Open Learn from the UK has comprehensive materials on business, technology, the Arts…
Orange Grove Text Plus from 
Oxford Scholarship Online: monographs in many academic areas and 1,350 Oxford books.
Perseus Digital Library, The Tufts Univ ‘Perseus brings a wide range of source materials. 
Project Gutenberg covers both fiction & non-fiction.

Pink Monkeystudy guides, book notes, and online textbooks for 15 subjects. 
Quick Notes Course Outlines
— accounting, economics, statistics, mathematics
Saskatchewan University (CA) has general engineering class notes.
Science Texts an extensive list from Professor Mark Dubin, at the University of Colorado
Sparknotes study guides covering a range of areas is predominantly Language based
Statistics Formulas

Statistics Tests with Answers help you prepare for problem tests.
Statistics Test Passing Help has multiple choice and true/false tests, answers provide.
Sunnis and Shiites at War 
TED talks has mind-expanding short talks.
Textbook Revolution— many diverse areas
The Assayer coves many areas, specializes in math and science.
Tufts OpenCourseWare has many  subjects, with a focus is on computer science.
Virtual Learning    
Wikibooks open-content textbooks
 — many diverse areas
 has over 1,000 free public domain e-book downloads.
Webcast.Berkeley has current and archived course and recorded special events.
World Wide School® Library: Lit, Soc Sci etc. divided into language sub-directories

Free Courses
21st Century Learning Products Courses for students and Course Materials for teachers. Subject area include  Accounting, Economics, Mathematics, and Statistics using Excel.Minitab,SPSS,TI-84.
100 Free Online Ivy League Courses
A Christian Thought Experiment 
Academic Earth – Video lectures from the world’s top scholars
Berkeley Webcasts
Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative
English as a Second Language has extensive material.
English Video Lectures will help you learn English. 
Johns Hopkins
Kutztown University specializes in Small Business Management
National Repository of Online Courses— high school, AP and college courses
Notre Dame
Online College Classes 
Open Course Ware Consortium has an extensive list of open courses by country.
Open University -UK
Quick Notes Course — accounting, economics, statistics (Excel, Minitab, SPSS, TI-84)
Sofia from Foothill-De Anza CC with testing material makes this truly a user friendly site.
Stanford Courses 
Tufts University 
Utah University
Utah Open Courseware Alliance
Yale Open Educational Resources Initiative

University of California’s College Prep Online (AP and other courses online)
UC Irvine Courses Online
University  of South Queens

 Development Sites with Completed Textbooks 
eduCommons will help you develop and manage an open access collection of course materials.
Global Text Projectoriginated by Dr. Richard Watson at the University of Georgia. is a registry of textbooks and text book material that is open in accordance with theOpen Knowledge Definition (OKD).
FlexBooks has HS science, math, engineering, and technology textbooks
Wikibooks – offers over 30,000 open-content textbooks.
Flat World Knowledge is a commercial digital-textbook publisher offering free open textbooks.
Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources, which was founded by the Foothill-De Anza Community College District and the League for Innovation in the Community College.
The Free Textbook Project help in creating and sharing educational materials. 

Textbook Development Sites with helpful textbook materials
The Orange Grove
CK12 Foundation
 provides learning segments that can be combined into books.
, from Rice University  “… is a rapidly growing collection of free scholarly materials and a powerful set of free software tools to help, authors publish and collaborate, instructors rapidly build and share custom courses, learners explore the links among concepts, courses, and disciplines. View an in-depth introduction to Connexions in the TED2006 presentation by Connexions Founder Richard Baraniuk.”
California Open Source Textbook Project (COSTP) is a collaborative, public/private undertaking. It has been created to address the high cost, content range, and consistent shortages of K-12 textbooks in California.
Open Educational Resources Commons is a teaching and learning network of shared materials, fro
m K-12 through college, from algebra to zoology, open to everyone.
Open of Course is a multilingual community portal for free online courses and tutorials.
TED2006 an in-depth introduction to Connexions presentation by its founder Richard Baraniuk.
Open Educational Resources (OER) Index
Open Education Resource Center  for California provides support for community college educators.